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Growth/Deposition Processes
Furnace Treatments SiO2 (Wet process) 10-1500 nm 5%
  SiO2 (Dry process) 10 - 300 nm 5%

Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition(LPCVD)

Poly-Si 30-3000 nm 5%
  LTO (stress free) 20-5000 nm 5%
  Si3N4 20-400 nm 5%
  TEOS 20 - 2000 nm 5%
Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD) a-Si:H, a-SiC:H, a-SiN:H, nc-Si, Si3N4 0-4 µm 4%
Sputtering Sn, Pt, Au, TiN, SiO2, Al-1% Si, Ti 3nm - 2µm 10%
Electron beam evaporation Al, Ti, Ag, Mo, Ni, Cr, Pt, Pd, Co, Fe, SiO2 3nm - 2µm 3%
CVD for carbon nanotubes and graphen-based materials MWCNTs, SWCNTs, nanopipes in nanoporous templates, nanowires, graphene films on Cu substrates, graphene foams on metallic (Ni, Steel) prous substrates 500 μm -
Controlled anodic oxidation Nanoporous Al2O3 templates (pore diameter 40-100 μm, pitch 100-500 μm) 5-500 μm -


Thermal Processes
Process Material Annealing Time Annealing Temperature
Phosphorus doping Si 10 min-1 h

from 920 °C up to 1000 °C

Furnace anneal Si, SiC 5 min-60 h


Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) Lamp Si, SiC, Ge 1s - 5 min
ramp up to 250°C/s

250 -1100°C

Ultra High Temperature annealing (UHT) RF Si, SiC (max 2inch substrate)

1 -60 min
ramp up to 60°C/s

750- 2000°C


Photolithographic Processes
Process System Mask Plate /
Wafer Size
Feature Size
Vapor Prime HMDS Hotplate piece up to 4 inch  
Photoresist Deposition Spin-coat piece up to 4 inch
Photoresist exposure Front Side aligner Deep UV (250 nm Wave length) 2-4 inch 600 nm
  Front-to-back side aligner Near UV (400 nm Wave length) 2-4 inch 1.25 µm
Baking Hot Plate up to 300 °C piece up to 4 inch  
  Hot Plate with controlled rampe up to 300 °C piece up to 4 inch  


Etching Processes
Process Layer etched Chemistry Rate
Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) SiO2 CHF3/Ar 30 nm/min
  Si3N4 CHF3/Ar 20 nm/min
  Si SiCl4
60 nm/min
1.0 µm/min
  Poly-Si SiCl4 60 nm/min
  SiC SiCl4/Ar/O2
38 nm/min
27 nm/min
  Al BCl3/Cl2/Ar 50-100 nm/min
 Deep Reactive Ion Etching (D-RIE)  Si  SF6/C4F8  1-13 µm/min
   SiO2  C4F8/He/CH4  0.4 µm/min
Plasma stripper Photoresist O2 >100 nm/min


Ion Implantation Processes


Implanted Species Energy Range Temperature
Medium Energy B, N, O, Si, P, Ar, As, In, Sb 15-170 keV R.T. - 550°C
High Energy H, He, B, N, O, Al, Si, P, As 500-5000 keV -60 - 700 °C


Wafer Bonding Processes
Process Substrate material Substrate #
Anodic Si, Pirex 2 - 3
Fusion Si Up to 3
Glass Frit Si, Pirex, other 2
Eutectic Si 2
SIO Si, SiO2 2