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The fabrication of homogeneously doped germanium layers characterized by total electrical activation is currently a hot topic in many fields, such as microelectronics, photovoltaics, optics and radiation detectors. Phosphorus spin-on-doping technique has been implemented on Ge wafers, by developing a protocol for the curing process and subsequent diffusion annealing for optimal doping. Parameters such as relative humidity and curing time turned out to affect the surface morphology, the degree of reticulation reached by the dopant source and the amount of dopant available for diffusion. After spike annealing in a conventional furnace, diffusion profiles and electrical properties have been measured. Ge loss from the surface during high-temperature annealing, due to diffusion into the source film, has been observed and quantified.
Publication date: 
15 Jan 2017

Virginia Boldrini, Sara Maria Carturan, Gianluigi Maggioni, Enrico Napolitani, Daniel Ricardo Napoli, Riccardo Camattari, Davide De Salvador

Biblio References: 
Volume: 392 Pages: 1173-1180
Applied Surface Science